Cousin-ness and Removals Explained

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Cousin-ness and removal is determined by common ancestry.

If you are the same number of generations from a common ancestor, you are just a plain cousin, where the number is one less than the number of generations.

Common GRANDparent (2 generations):
FIRST cousins.
Common GREAT-grandparent (3 generations):
SECOND cousins.

When the number of generations is NOT equal, then the Removals come in.

The child of your Nth cousin
is your Nth cousin-once removed.

The grandchild of your Nth cousin
is your Nth cousin-twice removed.